Training and sensitization play a key role in the application of the gender approach by the media.
The gender theory involves critical issues such as cultural values, religious beliefs, sexual diversity, race, and even disabilities.
It seeks to make a comprehensive review of social phenomena like deeply rooted male chauvinism.
There is much to be done along these lines, however, in contemporary radio, television and press.
Women characters in Latin American films have been changing. They are now stronger and more visible than in the past.
"Mothers, sisters, girlfriends, wives, femme fatales, and loving women often appeared on films made in the 1930s, '40s and '50s," said art historian and professor María C. Cumaná at the 8th Post-Graduate Course on Gender and Communication.
The event was organized by the José Martí International Institute of Journalism in Havana.
"Stereotypes are being left behind and new identities are being shaped. This is clearly shown in films by Argentina's María L. Bemberg and Mexico's María Novaro," Cumaná added. She is also the coordinator of the Latin American and Caribbean Film Portal.
Esmeralda is a 13-year-old junior-high-school student whose dream is to become a university graduate. This will be possible despite the fact that her mother is a harvester.
Since she was born, she has lived at a camp close to the biggest vegetable and fruit market (Central de Abasto) in Mexico City.
She accompanied her mother everywhere she went to until she turned six and a street teacher told her to take the girl to a shelter for boys, girls and teenagers in the area.
Located to the east of the capital city, the facility covers 304 hectares, markets 30 percent of domestic produce, has 1,881 fruit and vegetable stands and 338 grocery stores, and is visited by around 300,000 people every day.
Those living in the streets are often considered to be “dangerous”, but they really are victims of exclusion.
A survey by the Ministry of Social Development showed that there were 1,287 adults and over 700 children and teenagers under 18 years of age living in the streets of the city last year.
Seventy percent of them were men; 15 percent, women; and 15 percent, entire families, it revealed.
NGOs like Project 7, Doctors without Borders, and the Legal and Social Study Center estimate, however, that the actual overall number ranges from 10,000 to 15,000. The difference is due to the fact that the government does not consider people at risk, those evicted or likely to be evicted, and those living at hotels or shelters.
The number of local couples living together has grown, and the divorce rate has also followed a rising trend. This is one of the main findings in a recent socio-demographic studies.
The rate stood at 3.1 every 1,000 inhabitants, totaling 35,034 divorce rulings in 2009, according to the National Office of Statistics' Cuban Population Yearbook.
The number of divorce rulings every 100 marriages has almost tripled between 1970 and 2009, when there were 64 rulings every 100 marriages. The gross rate has moved from 0.41 every 1,000 inhabitants in 1955 up to 4.9 in 2009.
"Such an increase has been closely associated with socio-demographic variables other than the number of marriages," said María E. Benítez, a researcher at the University of Havana's Population Study Center (CEDEM).
Mariana cannot reflect all her grief in the short e-mail she sent me. She announces that "her mommy" is dead. What should I tell her? There is nothing like a warm embrace under these circumstances.
Santana, who played Mrs. Remigia on a popular TV show (San Nicolás del Peladero), was and still is a dear and respected mother. When the famous die, bosom friends usually speak of how close they had always been to them. But I can tell Mariana was always by her side, caring for and pampering her. Last February 4, she phoned me to let me know she was already suffering her loss.
As a journalist, I interviewed Santana, wrote about her performances on TV, and called her up until the day when she did not recognize my name. I understood that. The death of her adored and adoring husband Julio Vega had started to gradually take her away from this world.
She left Mariana, her spoiled daughter; Ramón Fajardo, her sincere historian; and Miguel Barnet, the poet who always admired her. Santana will certainly be useful after passing away. May her life provide an example for older people here and elsewhere!
Local teenagers make up 20 percent of the country's population (11.2 million), and over 75 percent of them live in urban areas.
While they have left aside old social taboos and prejudices, they are not properly equipped to have deal with HIV/AIDS and have safe sexual relations.
Most of them either study or work; some do nothing and others simply decide to leave home for another city or a foreign country.
Experts believe that the population group aged 10 to 24 demands special care, mainly in connection with sexual practices and risks that have a direct impact on reproductive health and future life projects.
It is a fact that median-age women are not often pleased with their sex lives. And this is not always due to aging, but to individual and social burdens.
A local, cross-cutting, descriptive study along these lines has so corroborated. Conducted in the January-May 2007 period, it involved 300 women aged 40 to 59 in Havana.
The research covered issues such as the menopausal syndrome, gender-related considerations, women's access to the labor market, household chores, family care, and the so-called sexual function index, which includes desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain over sex.
The study revealed that low self-esteem, poor family communication, irritability, insomnia, and depression often arise in this period and negatively affect women's sexual activity.
Daysi Rubiera's Desafío al silencio (Breaking the silence) is a new book about women who have endured gender violence.
A historian by training, Rubiera is a gender expert who has put together 13 different stories, including hers.
"When I joined MAGIN* in the early 1990s, I knew nothing about gender issues. I attended meetings and workshops that helped me realize that I was suffering from it myself," she told SEMlac.
"I conducted a number of interviews and set out the task of removing the myth that women are abused only by mental patients, marginalized people, and alcoholic or black men," she added.
Sangra por la herida (Bleeding wound), a novel by Cuban writer, journalist, poetess and essayist Mirta Yáñez, has just been launched by Union, the publishing house of the National Association of Cuban Artists and Writers (UNEAC), at the Cuban Book Institute headquarters in Old Havana.
Based on a tragic event that occurred in Havana in the 1960s, the novel is full of women characters, including Gertrudis, Yuya, Lola, Hermi, Estela, and María Esther.
"It is dedicated to friends who have stopped painting, playing the piano, producing plays, writing poems, or struggling for their dreams, for whatever reasons," said Yáñez.
The characters are all filled with contradictions, and the list includes a religious woman, an uninspired writer, a cultural worker, a successful exile, a talented and rebellious woman, and a wiped out Bulgarian. The city is also a character whose bleeding wounds have been caused by oblivion and obscurity.